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Makkah Tour Guide

 

Makkah Tour Guide

The City of Makkah:

Makkah is the blessed city which is the most beloved land in the sight of Allah (Glorified and Exalted is He) and the chosen location of His House. It was here that the final prophet and guide of the whole of mankind, Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be on him), was born and commenced his Prophet-hood.
Allah (Glorified and Exalted is He) has called Makkah by five names in the Quran: Makkah, Bakkah, Al-Balad, Al-Qaryah and Ummul-Qura.
In Surah Al-Imran, Allah (Glorified and Exalted is He) states:
"Verily, the first House (of worship) appointed for mankind was that at Bakkah (Makkah), full of blessing, and a guidance for AlAlamin (mankind and jinn)." [3:96]
When the Muslims conquered Makkah, The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) said,
"Allah had made this city sacred the day He created the heavens and the earth and it's sanctity shall remain until the Day of Qiyamah (Day of Judgement). Its thorns cannot be broken, its animals cannot be harmed and things fallen on its ground cannot be picked up unless with the intention of returning it to its owner or making public announcements (to locate the owner). It is also forbidden to cut the grass that (naturally) grows here." [Muslim]
The reward of prayer offered in Masjid al-Haram is multiplied many times. Jabir bin Abdullah (may Allah be pleased with him) narrates that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) said:
"A prayer in this mosque of mine is better than one thousand prayers anywhere else, except for al-Masjid al-Haram. A prayer in al-Masjid al-Haram is better than one hundred thousand prayers (anywhere else)." [Ahmad]
The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him), sitting on his camel in the Al-Hazwarah market, addressed Makkah saying,
"By Allah, you are the best land of Allah, the most beloved land of Allah to Allah. Had I not been driven out of you, I would not have left you." [Zaadul Ma'aad]
The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) once remarked:
"There is no city in which Dajjal will be unable to enter besides Makkah and Madinah. Every street will be lined with angels standing in rows to protect them." [Bukhari]

The Ka'bah:

The Ka'bah, also known as Baytullah (The House of Allah), is the first house built for humanity to worship Allah (Glorified and Exalted is He). The small, cubed building may not rival other famous buildings in terms of size but its impact on history and human beings is unmatched. It functions as the Qibla, the direction to which all Muslims pray five times a day.

Regarding the Ka'bah, Allah (Glorified and Exalted is He) mentions in the Quran in Surah AlMa'idah:
"Allah has made the Ka'bah, the Sacred House, an asylum of security and benefits (e.g., Haj and Umrah) for mankind." [5:97]
Directly above the Ka'bah, at its zenith, there is a corresponding place in the heavens called the Baytul Ma'moor which holds the same status there as the Ka'bah does here on earth. Each day seventy thousand angels engage in worship there and none of them get a second opportunity to present themselves there again. The Baytul Ma'moor is such a sacred and honoured place that Allah (Glorified and Exalted is He) takes an oath on it in the Quran in Surah Toor:
"And I swear by the Baytul Ma'moor." [4:52]
The north corner of the Ka'bah faces towards Syria, Jordan and Palestine; the east corner (where the Hajar al-Aswad is) faces towards Oman, India and Malaysia; the south corner (Rukun Yamani) faces towards Yemen, Mauritius and Kenya; and the west corner faces towards Egypt, Morocco and Spain.
The covering of the Ka'bah is known as the Kiswah and was first placed by the prophet Ismail (upon him be peace).
During the era of Abdullah bin Zubair (may Allah be pleased with him) the Ka'bah was
damaged by catapult fire in 64 AH when the army of Yazeed-bin-Muawaiya laid siege to
Makkah. One of Abdullah bin Zubair's companions lit a fire, a spark flew off and set alight the kiswah (covering) of the Holy Ka'bah. The wooden portions of the Ka'bah were burned which necessitated its demolition and reconstruction. Abdullah bin Zubair (may Allah be pleased with him) reconstructed it on the foundations of Ibraheem (upon him be peace), thus fulfilling what the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) had wished for, as the construction made by the Quraysh was about three meters short because they had run out of lawful earnings to finance the build.
When Hajjaj-bin-Yusuf had the governorship over Makkah he informed the Ummayad Khalifah Abdul Malik Ibn Marwan that Abdullah bin Zubair had changed the Ka'bah to something that was different to how it was in the lifetime of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him). He gave permission to change it again and in 73 AH it was changed to its previous state. However, when Abdul Malik came to know the Hadith of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) of how he had desired the Ka'bah to have been on the original foundations of Ibraheem (upon him be peace) he was full of remorse about what he had done.
Muslims do not pray to the Ka'bah, it functions merely as a unifying direction point. During his time in Makkah, the Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) used to pray towards Bait-al-Maqdis (Jerusalem), with the Ka'bah in front of him. When he migrated to Madinah, he prayed towards Jerusalem for 16 months, but he hoped it would be changed to the Ka'bah. Allah (Glorified and Exalted is He) then revealed the following verse in the Quran in Surah al-Baqarah:
"Verily, We have seen the turning of your (Muhammad's) face towards the heaven. Surely, We shall turn you to a Qibla (prayer direction) that shall please you, so turn your face in the direction of al-Masjid al-Haram (at Makkah). And wheresoever you people are, turn your faces (in prayer) in that direction." [2:144 ]

Inside the Ka'bah:

The Ka'bah made by Ibraheem (upon him be peace) contained no roof, it was the Quraysh who raised the walls of the Ka'bah and added a roof. Today, only a privileged few have had the opportunity to step inside the Ka'bah.

Inside the Ka'bah were statues of Ibraheem and Ismail (upon them be peace), along with pictures of angels and a picture of Ibraheem (upon him be peace) with divining arrows in his hand. It has also been reported that there was an icon painting of the Virgin Mary and the child Christ which had been done by a Christian. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) ordered all of them to be destroyed.
The Quraysh had erected their chief idol, Hubal, within the centre of Ka'bah. It was made of red carnelian and shaped like a human with the right hand broken which the Quraysh had replaced with gold. In front of the idol were seven arrows of fate and when the pagan Arabs were undecided on a matter they would go to Hubal and throw the arrows in front of him and took 'advice' based on how the arrows appeared.
The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) had Hubal destroyed after the conquest of Makkah.


Hajar al-Aswad:

The Hajar al-Aswad (The Black Stone) is set in the eastern corner of the Ka'bah. Tawaf is started and ended by facing this sacred stone. Throughout the ages, innumerable people including many of the Prophets (upon them be peace), the Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) himself, the Sahabah (may Allah be pleased with them), pious personalities and millions of Muslims who have performed Haj and Umrah have placed their blessed lips on it.

The Hajar al-Aswad was brought from Jannah and presented to Ibraheem (upon him be
peace) to be placed on the corner of the Ka'bah. Ibn Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) said:
"The Black Stone came down from Paradise and it was whiter than milk, but the sins of the sons of Adam turned it black." [Tirmidhi]
Du'as are accepted at the Hajar al-Aswad and on the Day of Judgement it will testify in favour of all those who kissed it. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) said:
"By Allah! On the Day of Qiyamah, Allah will present the Hajar al-Aswad in such a manner that it will have two eyes and a tongue to testify to the Imaan (faith) of all those who kissed it." [Tirmidhi]
Ibn Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) relates that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him), while leaning against the Ka'bah said:
"The Hajr al-Aswad and al-Maqam (Ibraheem) are two jewels from the jewels of Paradise. Had Allah (Glorified and Exalted is He) not concealed their radiance, they would illuminate everything between the East and the West." [Tirmidhi]
The Hajar al-Aswad was stolen from the Ka'bah around 930 CE by Qarmatian warriors who were an Ismaeeli Shia sect. They sacked Makkah, desecrating the Well of Zamzam with Muslim corpses and carried the Black Stone away to their base in Ihsaa, in medieval Bahrain. According to the historian Al-Juwayni, the stone was returned in around 952 CE and restored to its original location.
The Hajar al-Aswad was originally a complete stone but due to various historical incidents now consists of eight pieces of varying sizes affixed to a large stone and encased in a silver frame. The silver frame was first made by Abdullah bin Zubair (may Allah be pleased with him) and replaced by later Khalifas as the need arose.
Six (additional) pieces are claimed to be in Istanbul, Turkey. One is displayed in the mihrab of the Blue Mosque, one above the entrance of the tomb of Sulaiman the Magnificent and four in the Sokullu Sehit Mehmet Pasa Camii mosque (one over the mihrab, one below the lower pulpit, another is above the upper pulpit and the last is over the entrance door). The authenticity of these additional pieces has been questioned, although the Turks did rule over what is now Saudi Arabia for many years and hold many historical Islamic relics. And Allah (Glorified and Exalted is He) knows best.

Multazam:

The area between the Hajar al-Aswad and the Door of the Ka'bah is called the Multazam. It is approximately two metres wide and is a place where du'as (supplications) are accepted.

The Multazam is an area where du'as are accepted. It is sunnah to hold on to the wall of the Ka'bah in such a manner that a cheek, chest and hands are against the wall. It is reported that Abdullah bin Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) once completed the Tawaf, performed the salah and then kissed the Hajar al-Aswad. Thereafter, he stood between the Hajar al-Aswad and the door of the Ka'bah in such a manner that the cheek, chest and hands were against the wall. He then said,
"This is what I saw Rasulullah (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) do."
Abdullah bin Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) says,
"The signs of acceptance for anydu'a made between the Hajar al-Aswad and the door of the Ka'bah will certainly be seen."
Mujaahid (may Allah be pleased with him) says,
"The area between the Hajar al-Aswad and the door is called the Multazam. Allah will grant a person whatever he asks for there and save him from whatever he seeks refuge from there."

Hateem/Hijr Ismail:

The Hateem is the crescent shaped area immediately adjacent to the Ka'bah. Part of it is also known as the 'Hijr Ismail' as this was the place where Ibraheem (upon him be peace) constructed a shelter for Ismail (upon him be peace) and his mother Hajra (upon her be peace).
When the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) was 35 years old, a devastating flood damaged the Ka'bah and, as it had already been weakened by an earlier fire, was in danger of collapsing. Seeing that their house of worship was under threat, the Quraysh decided to rebuild the Ka'bah. They resolved not to taint the project with resources gained through usury (interest), prostitution or thieving. They came to know of a Roman ship that had become wrecked at a nearby port and a contingent went to purchase the wood of the ship. They also contracted a carpenter, named Baqoom, who had been one of the passengers on the ship to come and reconstruct the walls. The construction started with each tribe being allocated specific duties. The nobles among them carried pieces of stone and piled them up in one place. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) and his uncle Abbas were among those carrying stones. However, the tribes were unable to collect enough money to rebuild the Ka'bah completely so a small wall was built showing the boundaries of the original foundation laid by Ibraheem (upon him be peace). This small wall enclosed an area on the northern side of the Ka'bah.
Some scholars have mentioned that the graves of Ismail (upon him be peace) and his mother Hajra (upon her be peace) lie buried beneath the Hijr Ismail. However, others have dismissed the narrations as being Da'eef (weak).
Aisha (may Allah be pleased with her) reports that when she asked the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) whether the Hateem was part of the Ka'bah, he replied that it was. When she further asked why it was then not included in the walls of the Ka'bah, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) replied,
"Because your people (the Quraysh) did not have sufficient funds." [Bukhari]
Aisha (may Allah be pleased with her) says,
"When I expressed the wish to perform salah within the Ka'bah, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) took me by the hand and led me into the Hijr (Hateem) where he said, 'Perform salah here if you wish to enter the Ka'bah because this is part of the Baytullah.'"
It must be noted here that an area of approximately three meters adjacent from the wall of the Ka'bah actually constitutes as being part of the Ka'bah, the rest falls outside the Ka'bah. It is however clear that Tawaf must be performed outside the complete area of the Hateem.
In the year 65 AH, Abdullah bin Zubair (may Allah be pleased with him) had the Ka'bah constructed according to this wish of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him).



Meezab:



The Meezab is the golden spout from where rainwater on the roof of the Ka'bah falls onto the Hijr Ismail. It is reported that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) supplicated under the Meezab.
It is commonly referred to as the 'Meezab-e-Rahmah' (The water outlet of mercy).
The Quraysh were the first to construct a roof on the Ka'bah and therefore the first to attach thisdownpipe. Before their construction, there was neither a roof nor a downpipe.
The Meezab was remodelled when the Ka'bah was renovated in the year 1417 AH. The
dimensions were retained as they were when the Ottoman Emperor Sultan Abdul Majeed Khan renovated the Meezab in the year 1273 AH.


Maqami Ibraheem:

The Maqami Ibraheem refers to the stone on which Ibraheem (upon him be peace) stood on while he was building the Ka'bah. As Ismail (upon him be peace) passed stones to Ibraheem (upon him be peace), and as Ibraheem (upon him be peace) continued laying them in place the Maqami Ibraheem miraculously continued rising higher and higher as the walls rose. Allah (Glorified and Exalted is He) caused the trace of his footprints to remain on the stone as a reminder to the believers among his descendants.
It has been reported from Sa'eed bin Jubair (may Allah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) said:
"The stone is the station of Ibraheem. Allah made it soft and made it a mercy. Ibraheem would stand on it and Ismail would hand the stones up to him." Muthir Al-Gharam]
Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) reports that Allah (Glorified and Exalted is He) fulfilled three wishes that he had. Of these three, one was his proposal to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) that the Maqami Ibraheem should be made a place for performing salah (prayer). Allah (Glorified and Exalted is He) revealed the following verse in the Quran in Surah al-Baqarah:
"Take the Maqam of Ibraheem as a place of salah" [2:125]
At the time of Ibraheem (upon him be peace) the Maqam was attached to the Ka'bah. Umar (may Allah be pleased with him), seeing that leaving it where it was would make the space too crowded for Tawaf or for prayers had it moved to the place it is in now to make it easier for people. There was consensus among the Sahabah for this action of Umar (may Allah be pleased with him), for he was the one who had suggested it should be taken as a place of prayer.
Juhm bin Hudhayfah (may Allah be pleased with him), a Sahabi who was present when the Quraysh rebuilt the Ka'bah as well as when Abdullah bin Zubair (may Allah be pleased with him) rebuilt it says that the blessed footprints of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) very closely matches those of Ibraheem (upon him be peace). The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) also mentioned:
"From all the children of Ibraheem (upon him be peace) it is I who resembles him the most." [Bukhari]
Note that the significance of the Maqami Ibraheem is that it is a place for the performance of salah and not for touching or kissing. When there are lots of people performing tawaf it is better to perform salah some distance away from the Maqami Ibraheem to avoid causing unnecessary inconvenience to others.

 

Rukan Yamani:



The corner of the Ka'bah which faces the land of Yemen is called the Rukan Yamani because it is situated on the side of the Ka'bah. It is on the wall opposite to that of the Hajar al-Aswad.
Because this corner is still standing on the foundation that Ibraheem (upon him be peace) built, the narration of Abdullah bin Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) states that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) made 'Istilaam' of it.
'Istilaam' refers to the touching of the corner whether this is done by hand or by kissing. As the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) touched the Rukn Yamaani by hand, this practise is Sunnah. However, there is no harm if one is unable to touch it due to the crowds. Note that there is no narration to indicate you should kiss the Rukn Yamani.
It was the practice of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) that when he
passed between the Rukn Yamani and the Hajar al-Aswad, he recited the following du'a:
"O Rabb, grant us (all that which is) good in this world, (all that which is) good in the Aakhirah and save us from the punishment of the fire (of Jahannam)." [2:201]

 

Zamzam Well:



The Zamzam well has provided some 4000 years of almost continuous water supply, a living miracle.
Ibraheem (upon him be peace) took his son Ismail (upon him be peace) and the child's mother Hajra (upon her be peace) to Makkah where he left them with only some water and dates as provisions. Once the provisions ran out, mother and son became thirsty and restless. Hajra (upon her be peace) climbed up Mount Safa to see whether she could sight any people from whom she could get water. When she saw nothing, she crossed the valley and then climbed up Mount Marwah for the same reason. When she saw nothing here either, she started running from Safa to Marwah and back again in her anxiety. When she had done so seven times and was on top of Mount Marwah, she heard a sound. When she returned (to where her son lay), she saw that an angel had struck his wing on the ground, causing water to gush forth from the spot. The name of the well comes from the phrase 'Zome Zome', meaning 'stop flowing', a command repeated by Hajra (upon her be peace) during her attempt to contain the water.
There is healing power in Zamzam. Ibn Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) reports that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) said,
"The best water on the face of the earth is the water of Zamzam. In it is complete nourishment and healing from sickness." [At-Tabarani].
The Zamzam well is approximately 30m deep. Up until 1953 water was drawn by bucket, electric pumps now pump the water into tanks.

 

Safa/Marwah:



Safa and Marwah are the two mountains between which Hajra (upon her be peace) rushed seven times to see if she could spot any water or anyone from whom she could get some in order to give to her infant Ismail (upon him be peace). This action is copied by all pilgrims performing Haj or Umrah and is known as Sa'ee. The strip of ground between Safa and Marwah is referred to as the Mas'aa.
Allah (Glorified and Exalted is He) makes mention of the Safa and Marwah mountains in the Quran in Surah Baqarah:
"Verily Safa and Marwah are among the landmarks (distinctive signs) of (the Deen of) Allah." [2:158]
When Hajra (upon her be peace) was passing through the valley between Safa and Marwah in her search for water she kept her eye on her baby son, Ismail (upon him be peace). However, for part of the valley he was hidden from view and she ran this length. It is in emulation of this action that men are required to rush through the same section of the Mas'aa. The area where she ran is today clearly demarcated by green lighting.
Abdullah bin Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) narrates that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) climbed up Mount Safa when Allah (Glorified and Exalted is He) revealed the verse:
"And warn your tribe (O Muhammad) of near kindred." [26:214]
After ascending the Safa mountain he shouted: "Ya Sabahah!" (an Arabic expression when one appeals for help or draws the attention of others to some danger). When the people had gathered around him the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) said to them,
"If I told you that horsemen were advancing to attack you from the valley on the other side of this mountain, will you believe me?". "Yes", they replied, "We have always found you truthful."
The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) said,
"I am a plain warner to you of a coming severe punishment." After this vivid analogy the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) asked them to save themselves by declaring that Allah was one and that he, Muhammad, was his messenger. Abu Lahab (his uncle) said,
"May you perish! You gathered us only for this reason?". Upon this 'Surah al-Lahab' (Perish the hands of Abu Lahab!) was revealed.
After conquering Makkah, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) went to the Hajar al-Aswad and then performed tawaf. Then the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) climbed Mount Safa, faced towards the Ka'bah and after praising Allah, he started making du'a. It was from here that he announced (to the local Makkans),
"Whoever enters the house of Abu Sufyan has amnesty and whoever closes the door of his house has amnesty."

Bab ul-Fatah:

The Bab-ul-Fatah (Door of Victory) was the gate from where the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) entered during the conquest of Makkah on Friday, 20 Ramadhan 8 AH.

It is reported that Ali, the grandson of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) through his daughter Zainab (may Allah be pleased with him), sat with the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) on the camel's back during the triumphal entry into Makkah.
The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) went to the Ka'bah and performed tawaf. Around the Ka'bah were 360 idols. With a stick he was carrying he pushed them over, saying:
"The truth has come and falsehood has vanished away. Falsehood is ever vanishing" [17:81]
The truth has come and falsehood originates not nor brings again" [34:49]
After performing the circle the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) dismounted from his camel and prayed at the Maqami Ibraheem, then drank from the well of Zam-zam. He then asked for the keys to the Ka'bah and went inside for a while. By the time he came out the Quraysh had filled the Haram, awaiting anxiously to see what he would do next.
The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) ordered Bilal (may Allah be pleased with him) to climb up on the roof of the Ka'bah and give the athan (it is narrated that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) himself offered his shoulder for Bilal (may Allah be pleased with him) to climb from). It was the first time the leaders of the Quraysh had heard the word of Allah rising up; the valley of Makkah reverberated with the sound.


Daarul Arqam:

The area, at the foot of Mount Safa was the approximate area where Daarul Arqam (The house of Arqam) was located. It was here in the initial period of Islam that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) secretly preached Islam.
The house belonged to a Sahabi named Arqam bin Abu Arqam (may Allah be pleased with him). For some time after the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) proclaimed his Prophethood, this house was the secret centre of propagation. It was here that the Muslims gathered to perform salah and to learn about Islam. As it was a short walk away from the Ka'bah and its bustling crowds, the pagans who lived nearby did not take notice of the many people who used to gather here.
Daarul Arqam was also known as Daarul Khaizaraan. It was here that the following verse was revealed:
"O Prophet, Allah is sufficient for you, and for those who follow you among the
believers." [8:64]

House of Khadija (may Allah be pleased with her):

This is the approximate region, outside the Marwah exit, where the house of Ummul Mu'mineen Khadija (may Allah be pleased with her) was located. It was here that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) lived from the time of his marriage to her until he emigrated to Madinah.

When the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) married Khadija (may Allah be pleased with her), he moved out from the house of his uncle Abu Talib and into the house of his bride. At the time of their marriage he (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) was 25 and Khadija (may Allah be pleased with her) was 40 years old. They stayed together for 25 years.
Khadija (may Allah be pleased with her) was the Prophet's (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) first wife, he married none other during her lifetime. She bore all his children except for Ibraheem, who was born to Mariya Qibtiya (Mary the Copt). All of the children were born at her home. They were named (in order of birth) Qasim, Zaynab, Ruqayyah, Umm Kulthoom, Fatima, Abdullah, and Ibraheem (scholars, however, disagree about the exact number and order of births). All the sons passed away during childhood, but all the daughters lived to see their father become a prophet. Each daughter embraced Islam and migrated to Madinah, and all but Fatima (may Allah be pleased with her) died during the lifetime of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him). Fatima (may Allah be pleased with her) died six months after her father's death.
The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) stayed in the house of Khadija (may Allah be pleased with her) for around 29 years.

Birth-place of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him):

In She'eb Banu Hashim in Makkah, a library has been built is sited at the place where the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) was born on Monday 12 Rabi' al-Awwal (April 22, 571 CE), in the Year of the Elephant. His ancestry can be traced back to the Prophet Ibraheem (upon him be peace).

The Prophet's (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) father Abdullah died about six months before his birth. He had gone on a trading expedition to Gaza and Syria in the north and on the way back he had lodged with his grandmother's family in Yathrib (later to be known as Madinah). He became ill, died and was buried there. Thus, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) was born an orphan.
When Abdul Muttalib received the news of his grandson's birth, he took the newborn to the Ka'bah and invoked Allah's blessings and thanks. Believing his grandson would grow up to be highly praised, Abdul Muttalib named him Muhammad, which means 'he who is praised'. In keeping with Arab tradition, he then shaved the baby's head and afterwards invited his fellow Makkans to a feast.
According to the report of Abul-Fida, when the people asked Abdul Muttalib as to why he called his grandson Muhammad, preferring it to the names of his forefathers, he replied,
"It is because I have a longing that my grandson should be praised and commended by one and all in the world."
Thuwaybah, the slave of Prophet's (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) uncle Abu Lahab, also nursed the infant. At that time, Thuwaybah was also nursing her own child, Masrooh, as well as Hamzah bin Abdul Muttalib and Abu Salamah bin Abdul Makhzoomi. Hence, these men became foster brothers because they were nursed at the same breast. Thuwaybah suckled the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) for seven days and on the eighth day he was entrusted to Haleemah of the Banu Sa'd clan to bring him up in the desert.
It is reported that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) said:
"I am a result of the supplication of my father Ibraheem (upon him be peace) and the glad-tidings brought by Isa (upon him be peace). And my mother – when she bore me – saw that a light shone out from her, which lit up the palaces in Syria." [al Haakim]

Jannatul Ma'lah:

Jannatul Ma'lah is the principle historical graveyard in Makkah which is located in a valley east of the Masjid al-Haram. Several members of the Prophet's (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) family and many Sahabah (may Allah be pleased with them) are buried here. The following personalities are buried in this graveyard:
Ummul Mu'mineen Khadija (may Allah be pleased with her), the first wife of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him)
Qasim, the eldest son of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) from his wife Khadija (may Allah be pleased with her); he died in infancy.
Abdullah, the second son of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) from his wife Khadija (may Allah be pleased with her); he was also known as Tahir and Tayyab.
Abu Talib – the uncle of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him)
Abdul Muttalib – the grandfather of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him).


Jabal al-Hira:



Jabal al-Hira (the mountain of Hira) lies about two miles from the Ka'bah. Near the top is a small cave, a little less than four meters in length and a little more than one and a half meters in width. It was here that the Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) received the first revelations of the Holy Quran during the month of Ramadhan in 610 CE. The mountain is also known as Jabal Noor (the Mountain of Light).

The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) first began to have revelations in the form of good dreams which came true. Then he began to like solitude. He would go to the cave of Hira and meditate there in solitude for a number of days and nights. He would take provisions with him to stay for an extended period, and when he returned to Khadija (may Allah be pleased with him), he would stock up again and go back to the cave. This was his practice until Truth was revealed to him by an angel while he was in the cave of Hira.
During Tahajjud time one night, when he was alone in the cave, there came to him an angel in the form of a man. The angel said to him, "Recite!". "I cannot read", the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) replied. The angel took hold of him a second time and pressed him until he could not endure it any longer. After letting him go, the angel again said, "Recite!" Again the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) replied "I cannot read". The angel further embraced him again until he had reached the limit of endurance and said "Recite!" for the third time the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) said "I cannot read". The angel released him and said: "Read in the name of your Lord, the Creator. He Who created man from a clot. Read! And your Lord is the Most Bounteous. Who taught by the Pen, taught man what he knew not." [96:1-5]

Jabal al-Thowr:

Jabal al-Thowr is the mountain that contains the cave in which the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) and Abu Bakr (may Allah be pleased with him) sought refuge for three days and nights from the Quraysh, as they left Makkah and emigrated to Madinah.

When the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) and Abu Bakr (may Allah be pleased with him) arrived at the cave on Mount Thowr, Abu Bakr (may Allah be pleased with him) entered first to clear away anything that might injure the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him). He found a few holes and stuffed them with pieces of cloth. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) then entered and went to sleep on Abu Bakr's (may Allah be pleased with him)'s lap. Suddenly, something stung Abu Bakr's (may Allah be pleased with him) foot, but he did not twitch, fearing he would wake the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him). The pain was so intense that tears began to run down his cheeks and onto the Prophet's (peace and blessings of Allah be on him)'s face. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) woke up and saw that Abu Bakr (may Allah be pleased with him) was in pain. He applied his spittle on the injury and the pain disappeared.
For three consecutive nights the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) and Abu Bakr (may Allah be pleased with him) remained hidden in the cave.

Mina:

Mina, seven kilometres east of the Masjid al-Haram is where Haj pilgrims sleep overnight on the 8th, 11th, 12th (and some even on the 13th) of Dhul Hijjah. It contains the Jamarat, the three stone pillars which are pelted by pilgrims as part of the rituals of Haj.

The word Mina means 'to flow' as it is here that the blood of sacrificial animals flow during the day of Eidul Adha. During the Farewell Pilgrimage (Hajjat-ul-Wada) the Muslims had brought with them 100 camels to be sacrificed. On the 10th Dhul Hijjah the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) stoned the Jamarat and went back to his camp in Mina where he sacrificed 63 of the camels. Ali (may Allah be pleased with him) slaughtered the remaining 37 camels and the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) instructed that a part of each camel is cooked and served to him and his Companions.
There lies a cave in Mina known as the 'Cave of Mursalaat' as this was where the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) was when Surah Mursalaat was revealed to him. However, this cave is no longer accessible.

Jamarat:

The Jamarat are three stone pillars which are pelted as a compulsory ritual of Haj in emulation of the Prophet Ibraheem (upon him be peace). They represent the three locations where Ibraheem (upon him be peace) pelted the Shaitan (Satan) with stones when he tried to dissuade him from sacrificing his son Ismail (upon him be peace). The pillars are called 'Jamarat-al-Ula', 'Jamarat-alWusta' and 'Jamarat-al-Aqaba'.

One of the purposes of the Haj is to recall, while in Mina, how a 94 year old father brought his eight year old son here for sacrifice. Ibraheem (upon him be peace) had first left his wife and newborn son, Ismail (upon him be peace) in the desert upon Allah's command. Then while returning after eight years to them he saw a dream wherein a man told him that Allah (Glorified and Exalted is He) wanted him to sacrifice his son. He saw the same dream for three consecutive nights and as he was a Prophet, his dreams were a form of Wahy (Divine Instruction). He realised that Allah (Glorified and Exalted is He) wanted him to sacrifice his son for whom his heart was overfilled with love and emotions.
The views of the Jews and Christians greatly differ from Muslims with regards to who the sacrificial son was and where this incident took place. In order to enhance their prestige and honour they have attributed the sacrificial son to Ishaq (upon him be peace) who is the forefather of the Jews and Christians rather than Ismail (upon him be peace) who is the forefather of the Muslims. They have also placed the setting to be in Jerusalem rather than Mina. It is clear, by looking at Biblical scriptural evidence that the sacrificial son could only have been Ismail (upon him be peace). For example, in Genesis 22:2 Abraham is commanded to take his only son for sacrifice. As Ismail (upon him be peace) was 13 years older than Ishaq (upon him be peace) and both were alive at the time of their father's death, logically Ishaq (upon him be peace) could never be his only son.

Masjid al-Khayf:

This masjid is located at the foot of a mountain in the south of Mina, close to the smallest Jamarat. It was at this spot that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) and numerous other Prophets before him performed salah.

Masjid al-Khayf is a masjid whose virtues are proven in some Hadith. According to a traceable Hadith of Ibn Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him), the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) said: "Seventy Prophets prayed in Masjid al-Khayf." [Majma'uz-Zawahid]
Yazeed bin Aswad (may Allah be pleased with him) says that when he performed Haj with the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him), it was at the Masjid Khayf that he performed the Fajr salah with the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him).
Abdur -Rahman bin Mu'adh (may Allah be pleased with him) reports that when the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) delivered a sermon in Mina, he instructed the Muhajireen to set up camp in front of the Masjid al-Khayf and the Ansar to set up camp behind it. The rest of the Muslims were to camp behind them. [Abu Dawood]
Abdullah bin Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) narrates that it was in Masjid al-Khayf that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) addressed them. After praising Allah he said:
"Allah will set right the affairs of the person whose prime concern is the Aakhirah (Hereafter), Allah will also grant him self-sufficiency and the world will humble itself before him. As for the person whose prime concern is this world, Allah will scatter his affairs, place poverty in front of him and all he will get of this world will be what has been predestined for him." [Tabraani]

Muzdalifah:

Muzdalifah is a place where Haj pilgrims arrive after sunset from Arafat on the 9th Dhul Hijjah (second day of Haj).

Muzdalifah stretches from the Valley of Muhassar to the mountains of Ma'zamayn. It is four kilometres long and covers an area of 12.25 square kilometres. Muzdalifah is also called 'Jam' as it is a place where people gather.
Referring to Muzalifah, Allah (Glorified and Exalted is He) mentions in Surah Baqarah in the Quran:
"When you leave Arafat, then remember Allah at the Mash'arul Haram." ('The Sacred Monument', referring to Muzdalifah according to Abdullah bin Umar (may Allah be pleased with him)
During the farewell Haj, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) performed the Maghrib and Isha salahs together at Muzdalifah. He stayed at the spot where the present Masjid Mash'arul Haram currently is (towards the Qibla side). From there, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) said:
"Although I am staying here, you may stay anywhere throughout Muzdalifah." [Muslim]
During Haj It is waajib to perform Maghrib and Isha together in Muzdalifah at Isha time. Wuqoof (stay) of Muzdalifah is also waajib and it's time begins from sub'h saadiq and ends at sunrise. If one spent even a little portion of their time in Muzdalifah, he/she will be absolved of this obligation. However, it is best to remain until just before sunrise.
Although pebbles for pelting the Jamarat may be collected from anywhere, they are best collected from Muzdalifah.

Arafat:

The Jabal-ur-Rehmah is a mountain on the plain of Arafat. It is known as the "Mountain of Mercy". Standing at Arafat is the fundamental requirement of Haj and pilgrims come here on the 9th Dhul Hijjah (second day of Haj).

The common meaning of the word Arafat is 'to know'. After being taken out of Jannah and placed on Earth, it was here that Adam and Hawa (upon them be peace) met up.
Standing on Arafat is an essential part of the Haj; whoever misses the standing on Arafat has missed Haj, because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) said: "Haj is Arafat." [al-Hakim]
There once existed a masjid on the right slope of Jabal-ur-Rehmah called Masid Sakhrah. It signified the spot where the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him), after leading the Zuhr and Asr salahs faced towards the Qibla and engaged in du'a till sunset. It was at this spot where the above verse of the Quran was revealed. Note that it is stated in a Hadith that no further verses were revealed after this one with regards to halal and haram.
One of the virtues of the day of Arafat is that fasting this day expiates for the sins of the past and coming year. It was reported from Abu Qatadah that a man said: "O Messenger of Allah, what do you think of fasting on the day of Arafat?" He said: "It expiates for the sins of the previous year and of the coming year" [Muslim]
This (fasting) is mustahab (desirable) for those who are not on Haj. In the case of the one who is on Haj, it is not Sunnah for him/her to fast on the Day of Arafat, because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) did not fast on this day when he was in Arafat.

Masjid Nimrah/Waadi Urana:

The Masjid Nimrah is located on the plain of Arafat. When the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) was at Arafat on his farewell Haj on the ninth day of Dhul Hijjah 10 AH (632 CE) he camped here. After midday he delivered his famous sermon (reproduced below) at Waadi Urana nearby while seated on his camel, after which he led the salah. More than 100,000 Sahabah accompanied him on this Haj.

In the second century of Islam, Masjid Nimrah was built at the spot where the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) delivered the sermon and led the salah. Because Waadi Urana, where the sermon was delivered is outside the boundaries of Arafat, that section of the masjid is naturally also outside the boundaries.
When the masjid was extended afterwards, it then became divided into two sections; the front section which was the location of the original masjid being outside Arafat and the back section being within the boundaries. After renovations, signboards were erected inside the masjid to inform people about this matter so that after performing their Zuhr and Asr salahs in congregation, they could either move to the back of the masjid or outside to spend the rest of their time in Arafat. Should a person spend all his time from midday to sunset in the front section of the masjid, his stay at Arafat will be invalid and his Haj will therefore be incomplete.

House of Abu Bakr (may Allah be pleased with him):

This is the approximate place where the house of Abu Bakr (may Allah be pleased with him) was
located in Makkah and from where Hijrah to Madinah commenced. It is in the Makkah Towers
Hotel block, where a masjid (Masjid Abu Bakr) has been built on the 4th floor.

Masjid Aisha:

Masjid Aisha, also known as Masjid at-Tan'eem marks the place where Ummul-Mu'mineen Aisha (may Allah be pleased with her) went to enter into Ihram for Umrah when the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) told her to do so during the farewell Haj. The masjid lies 7.5 km south from Makkah on the road to Madinah and is the closest of all the boundary points.

Abdullah bin Mas'ood (may Allah be pleased with him) narrates, "While in Makkah, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) once said to the Sahabah (may Allah be pleased with them), 'Whoever wishes to see what the Jinn are all about should come along'." Besides me no-one else came. When we reached the place in the Ma'la district of Makkah the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) used his foot to draw a circle on the ground.
He then instructed me to sit inside the circle. After proceeding a little further, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) started reciting the Qur'an. It then happened that Jinn started to arrive in troops as they gathered there. So many came that I could not even see the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) nor hear him. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him) then continued talking with a group of them until Fajr.